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Issue 20

Issue 20

Time Behind a Shadow: The What, Where and When of Lunar and Solar Eclipses

  • Beatty, Kelly. “Solar and Lunar Eclipses in 2019.” Sky & Telescope, 26 Dec. 2018,
  • Byrd, Deborah. “What's a Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon?” EarthSky, 10 Feb. 2017,
  • Howell, Elizabeth. “Miss the 2019 Blood Moon? Here's When the Next One Will Occur.”,, 22 Jan. 2019,
  • “Solar and Lunar Eclipses Worldwide – Next 10 Years.”,
  • “What Is the Penumbra?”,
  • “What Is the Umbra?”,
  • Wild, Flint. “What Is an Eclipse?” NASA, NASA, 1 June 2015,

The Biochemistry of Luster Dust: To Eat or Not to Eat

Lucid Dreaming: The Science of Achieving Awareness in Dreams

  • Ertl, Klara (2017). Lucid Dreaming: Neural Correlates and Practical Applications. Maastricht Student Journal of Psychology and Neuroscience, 6(1), 40-76.

  • Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research. (2006). Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. (H. R. Colten & B. M. Altevogt, Eds.). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press (US). Retrieved from

  • Leavitt, J., & Biggers, A. (2018, November 12). How Much Deep Sleep Do You Need? Retrieved February 25, 2019, from

  • Lucid Dreaming/Induction Techniques - Wikibooks, open books for an open world. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2019, from

  • Nielsen, T. (2012). Variations in dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity by age and sex. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 106. doi:10.3389/fneur.2012.00106

  • Schadlich, M., & Erlacher, D. (2012). Applications of lucid dreams: An online study. Universitätsbibliothek der Universität Heidelberg.

  • Voss, U., Holzmann, R., Tuin, I., & Hobson, J. A. (2009). Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. Sleep, 32(9), 1191–1200. doi:10.1093/sleep/32.9.1191

A College Student's Life Living From Nap to Nap: Sleep and the Formulation of Interfering Memories

  • Diekelmann, S., Landolt, H., Lahl, O., Born, J., & Wagner, U. (2008). Sleep loss produces false memories. Plos One.
  • Herlitz, A., & Rehnman, J. (2008). Sex differences in episodic memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17(1): 54-56.
  • Marshall, L., & Born, J. (2007). The contribution of sleep to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11(10): 442-450.
  • Mazzoni, G. A. L., Lombardo, P., Malvagia, S., & Loftus, E. F. (1999). Dream interpretation and false beliefs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(1), 45-50.
  • Payne, J. & Nadel, L. (2004). Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol. Learning and Memory. 11: 671-678.
  • Payne, J., Schacter, D., Propper, R., Huang, L., Wamsley, E., Tucker, M., Walker, M., & Stickgold, R. (2009). The role of sleep in false memory formation. Elsevier. 92(3): 327-334.
  • Payne, J., Stickgold, R., Swanberg, K., & Kensinger, E. (2008). Sleep preferentially enhances memory for emotional components of scenes. Psychological Science.
  • Stickgold, R. (2005). Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature. 437: 1272-1278.
  • Wade, K., Garry, M., Read, J. & Lindsay, D. (2002). A picture is worth a thousand lies: Using false photographs to create false childhood memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 9(3): 597-603.
  • Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R., & Born, J. (2004). Sleep inspires insight. Nature. 427: 352-355.

Dance and the Empathetic Mind

  • Beausoleil, Emily. “What moves us: dance and neuroscience implications for conflict approaches.” Conflict Resolution Quarterly Volume 31 (2014).
  • Berrol, Cynthia. “Neuroscience meets dance / movement therapy: Mirror neurons, the therapeutic process and empathy.” The arts in Psychotherapy Volume 33 (2006).
  • Gallese, V. “Intentional attunement. The mirror neuron system and its role in interpersonal relations.” (2005).

Insect Allies: Genetically Modified Insects Could Be Farmers' New Best Friends

Low Gut Microbiota Levels Affect the Development of Depression and Anxiety: Lactobacillus Levels Connect to Improvements in Mental Health

  • Andrew, Elise. “Link Found Between Gut Bacteria And Depression.” IFLScience, IFLScience, 20 Mar. 2018,
  • Marin, Ioana A., et al. “Microbiota Alteration Is Associated with the Development of Stress-Induced Despair Behavior.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 7 Mar. 2017,
  • Team, Kelly Brogan MD, et al. “Depression Starts In Your Gut.” Kelly Brogan MD, 21 Nov. 2017,
  • Clapp M, Aurora N, Herrera L, Bhatia M, Wilen E, Wakefield S. “Gut microbiota's effect on mental health: The gut-brain axis.” Clin Pract. 2017;7(4):987. Published 2017 Sep 15. doi:10.4081/cp.2017.987

The Masterminds of Your Diet: Taking Control of Your Gut Microbes

  • Leitão-Gonçalves R, Carvalho-Santos Z, Francisco AP, Fioreze GT, Anjos M, Baltazar C, Elias AP, Itskov PM, Piper MDW, Ribeiro C. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction. PLoS Biol. 2017; 15(4):e2000862
  • Bravo JA, , Forsythe P, Chew MV, Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, Bienenstock J, Cryan JF. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2011; 108:10650-55
  • Brahe LK, Astrup A, Larsen LH. Can we prevent obesity-related metabolic diseases by dietary modulation of the gut microbiota? Adv Nutr. 2016; 7:90-101.
  • Turnbaugh PJ, Bäckhed F, Fulton L, Gordon JI. Diet-induced obesity is linked to marked but reversible alterations in the mouse distal gut microbiome. Cell Host Microbe. 2008; 3:213-23.
  • Gentile CL, Weir TL. The gut microbiota at the intersection of diet and human health. Science. 2018; 362:776-780.

Unwinding the Web: The Mathematical Basis of the Spider Web

Adderall: Use and Abuse of Study Drugs on College Campuses


  • Anderson, Mark. “Foldscope: A Paper Microscope You Can Attach to Your Smartphone.” IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News, IEEE Spectrum, 23 Oct. 2018,
  • Dunn, Rob. “Discovering the Great Indoors.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 27 Oct. 2018,
  • “FAQ - Using the Foldscope.” Foldscope Instruments, Foldscope Instruments, Inc. 2018,
  • “Foldscope Community.” Microcosmos, 6 Jan. 2018,
  • “Foldscope Paper Microscope Can Diagnose Malaria, Costs 50 Cents.” CBC News, CBC/Radio-Canad, 13 Mar. 2014,
  • Kabeja, Boris Bahire. “Foldscope: Let Us Walk with Microscopes in Our Pockets.” Cleanleap, Cleanleap, 27 Mar. 2018,
  • Kormann, Carolyn. “Through the Looking Glass: Can a Cheap, Portable Microscope Revolutionize Global Health?” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 28 Dec. 2015,
  • Kosowatz, John. “Folding Microscopes from Frugal Science.” ASME, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Apr. 2014,
  • Krieger, Lisa. Engineering Is Diagnosing Diseases with Origami Microscopes. Edited by Bronwyn Llewellyn et al., KQED Science.
  • Newby, Kris. “Stanford Bioengineer Develops a 50-Cent Paper Microscope.” Scope Blog, Stanford University School of Medicine, 10 Mar. 2014,
  • Newby, Kris. “Wildly Frugal: Manu Prakash's Dream Is Science Tools for Everyone, Everywhere.” Stanford Medicine, Stanford University,
  • “Our Story.” Foldscope Instruments, Foldscope Instruments, Inc. 2018,
  • Sibby. “Leeuwenhoek's Microscope.” Microcosmos, 14 Apr. 2018,
  • Theg, Alex. “Magnifying Power to the People with the Foldscope.” PLOS Blogs: Diverse Perspectives on Science and Medicine, 19 June 2014,
  • Yong, Ed. “The $1 Pocket Microscope.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 1 Sept. 2015,

Electronic Health Records: Improved Healthcare is in Our Hands

How to Fake a Face: AI Systems Create Realistic Faces From Scratch

Issue 19

Issue 19


Art and Environment

Soda: The Hidden Dangers Inside the Can

  • 11, Reader’s Digest EditorsJun. “Reasons to Avoid All Soda - That Means Diet Too.” Reader's Digest, Reader's Digest.

  • “13 Ways That Sugary Soda Is Bad For Your Health.” Healthline, Healthline Media.

  • DiMeglio, D P, and R D Mattes. “Liquid versus Solid Carbohydrate: Effects on Food Intake and Body Weight.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2000.

  • Lee, Matthew. “Soda's Effects on Tooth Erosion.” Healthy Eating | SF Gate, 11 June 2018..

  • Ludwig, DS, et al. “Relation between Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Drinks and Childhood Obesity: a Prospective, Observational Analysis.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 17 Feb. 2001..

  • MacMillan, Amanda. “Stop Drinking Soda, for (Your Own) Good.” CNN, Cable News Network, 27 Mar. 2015.

  • Mueller, Noel T et al. “Soft Drink and Juice Consumption and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: The Singapore Chinese Health Study” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention:a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology vol. 19,2 (2010): 447-55.

Space Force: The Next Frontier

  • Bruno, A.J. “The Space Force Is No Joke – in Fact, It's Really Needed.” Washington Examiner, 8 Nov. 2018,

  • Davenport, Christian, and Dan Lamothe. “Pence Details Plan for Creation of Space Force in What Would Be the Sixth Branch of the Military.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 9 Aug. 2018,

  • Foust, Jeff. “Elon Musk Backs Space Force Proposal.”,, 5 Nov. 2018,

  • Greshko, Michael. “Would a U.S. Space Force Be Legal? Get the Facts.” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 9 Aug. 2018,

  • Johnson, Eric. “Full Q&A: Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk on Recode Decode.” Recode, Recode, 2 Nov. 2018,

  • Koren, Marina. “Trump's Space Force Faces an Uncertain Fate.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 9 Nov. 2018,

  • Sisk, Richard. “Space Force in Jeopardy After Democrats Gain Control of House.”, Member 30298028, 7 Nov. 2018,

  • Wall, Mike. “The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records.”,, 12 Jan. 2018,

  • 45th Space Wing Public Affairs. “45th SW supports successful Atlas V launch of AFSPC-11 mission.” U.S. Air Force, 18 April. 2018,

The Mummy’s Curse?: Mummies, Their Use in Disease Research, and the Potential Outcomes of Their Recovery

Homo praticus: Performing Man and the Paradox of Social Media

  • Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Dunbar, R. I. M. (1993). Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4): 681-735.

  • Number of social media users worldwide 2010-2021. (n.d.). Retrieved from

  • Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287-293. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.006

  • Leung, L. (2013). Generational differences in content generation in social media: The roles of the gratifications sought and of narcissism. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 997-1006. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.028

  • What's the Single Greatest Danger of Covert Narcissism? (n.d.). Retrieved from

Sleep: Casually Prescribed, Deeply Beneficial, Poorly Understood

  • Aulsebrook, A. E. et al. (2016) Sleep ecophysiology: integrating neuroscience and ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 31, 590-597

  • Elvsåshagen, T. et al. (2015) Widespread changes in white matter microstructure after a day of waking and sleep deprivation. PLoS ONE.

  • Muslek, E. S. et al. (2016) Mechanisms linking circadian clocks, sleep, and neurodegeneration. Science.

  • Schmid, M.H. (2014) The energy allocation function of sleep: a unifying theory of sleep, torpor, and continuous wakefulness. Neuroscience Biobehavioural Reviews. 47, 122-153

  • Tononi, G. et al. (2014) Sleep and the price of plasticity: from synaptic and cellular homeostasis to memory consolidation and integration. Neuron. 81, 12-34.

  • Walker, M. (2017) Why we sleep. Scribner. 56-78.

Learning from the 'Alien' Language: Unraveling Linguistic Relativity in the Film Arrival

A Revolting Remedy: A Word About C. diff and Experimental Treatments

When Magnets Inspire Art: From Psychedelic Artwork to Floating Objects

Issue 18

Issue 18

Cold Plasma Therapy: Can One Device Change the World?

  • 2014 study: Köritzer, J. (2014). Biophysical Effects of Cold Atmospheric Plasma on Glial Tumor Cells (Springer International Publishing).

The Outbreak of Autoimmunity: Why are our immune systems going rogue?

  • NetCE. “Autoimmune Diseases.” iBooks.

  • Lerner, Aaron, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias. "The World Incidence and Prevalence of Autoimmune Diseases is Increasing." International Journal of Celiac Disease 3.4 (2015):

  • Myles, Ian A. “Fast Food Fever: Reviewing the Impacts of the Western Diet on Immunity.” Nutrition Journal 13 (2014) PMC. Web. 27 May 2018.

  • Milner, J. Justin, and Melinda A. Beck. “The Impact of Obesity on the Immune Response to Infection.” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 71, no. 2, 2012,

  • Sørensen, Lone B, et al. “Effect of Sucrose on Inflammatory Markers in Overweight Humans.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 2, Aug. 2005

  • Albert Sanchez, J. L. Reeser, H. S. Lau, P. Y. Yahiku, R. E. Willard, P. J. McMillan, S. Y. Cho, A. R. Magie, U. D. Register; Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 26, Issue 11, 1 November 1973,


  • Kalinski, P. “Regulation of Immune Responses by Prostaglandin E2.” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 188, no. 1, 2011, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1101029.

  • Calder, PC. “Fatty Acids and Inflammation: the Cutting Edge between Food and Pharma.”Pub Med, 2011, 

  • Donna Jackson Nakazawa. “The Autoimmune Epidemic.” iBooks.

  • Myles, Ian A. “Fast Food Fever: Reviewing the Impacts of the Western Diet on Immunity.” Nutrition Journal 13 (2014): 61. PMC. Web. 27 May 2018.!po=9.16667

  • “51. Ackerman LS. Sex hormones and the genesis of autoimmunity. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142(3):371-376.” 

  • Okada, H et al. “The ‘hygiene Hypothesis’ for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases: An Update.” Clinical and Experimental Immunology 160.1 (2010): 1–9. PMC. Web. 30 May 2018. 

  • Crawford, Dorothy H. Deadly Companions: How Microbes Shaped Our History. Oxford University Press, 2018. 

  • Williams, William V. “Hormonal Contraception and the Development of Autoimmunity: A Review of the Literature.” The Linacre Quarterly, vol. 84, no. 3, 2017 

  • Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al. Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2001. Autoimmune responses are directed against self antigens.

  • Perricone, C, et al. “An Overview on the Genetic of Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Never-Ending Story.” Advances in Pediatrics., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aug. 2011, 

  • Lettre G, Rioux JD. Autoimmune diseases: insights from genome-wide association studies. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17(R2): R116-R121. 

  • Rubio-Tapia A, Kyle RA, Kaplan EL, et al. Increased prevalence and mortality in undiagnosed celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(1). 

  • “Can Antibiotics Cause Autoimmunity?” Code Red - Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University - Thomas Jefferson University, 

  • Scanlin, Amy. “Autoimmune Disease: Growing Impact.” Biosupply Trends Quarterly , Apr. 2014,

  • “Research • AARDA.” AARDA, 

  • Texas Department of State Health Services. “El Paso Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Study.” Texas Department of State Health Services, 2011, 

  • Khan, Deena, and S. Ansar Ahmed. “The Immune System Is a Natural Target for Estrogen Action: Opposing Effects of Estrogen in Two Prototypical Autoimmune Diseases.” Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers Media S.A., 2015, 

Hand Dryers: Germ Machines in Disguise?

  • Bratskeir, Kate. “Bad News About Those Fancy 'Jet Air' Hand Dryers.” The Huffington Post,, 18 Apr. 2016.

  • Care, Primary. “Do Hand Dryers Spread More Germs Than Paper Towels?” UPMC HealthBeat, 29 Aug. 2018.

  • Hafner, Josh. “Hand Dryers Suck in Fecal Bacteria and Blow It All Over Your Hands, Study Finds.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 13 Apr. 2018.

  • “Hand Dryers Spew Bacteria in Bathrooms.” Healthline, Healthline Media.

  • Ossola, Alexandra. “Do Jet Hand Dryers Really Spread More Germs Than Paper Towels?” Popular Science, 14 Apr. 2016.

  • “Reusable Paper Towels.” If You Care.

  • Ross, John. “The Bacterial Horror of Hot-Air Hand Dryers.” Harvard Health Blog, 17 May 2018.

Using Ancient Slugs to Understand Our Immune System: How Dicty Sentinel Cells Model Neutrophils

  • Zhang, Xuezhi, et al. "Social amoebae trap and kill bacteria by casting DNA nets." Nature communications 7 (2016): 10938.

  • Zhang, Xuezhi, and Thierry Soldati. "Of amoebae and men: extracellular DNA traps as an ancient cell-intrinsic defense mechanism." Frontiers in immunology 7 (2016): 269.

Rest, Pain Medication, Darkness, Repeat: How we should be addressing concussions in athletes

  • Buckley, T., Munkasy, B., & Clouse, B. (2016). Acute cognitive and physical rest may not improve concussion recovery time. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31(4), 233-241.

  • Collins, M., Kontos, A., Reynolds, E., Murawski, C., & Fu, F. (2014). A comprehensive, targeted approach to the clinical care of athletes following sport-related concussion. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 22(2), 235-246.

  • Reynolds, E., Collins, M., Mucha, A., & Troutman-Ensecki, C. (2014). Establishing a clinical service for the management of sports-related concussions. Neurosurgery,75(4), 71-81.

  • Schneider, K., Leddy, J., Guskiewicz, K., Seifert, T., McCrea, M., Silverberg, N., Feddermann-Demont, N., Iverson, G., Hayden, A., & Makdissi, M. (2017). Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(12), 930-934.

Defusing the bomb: How Mammoths, a Russian Scientist, and His Tank Are Trying To Save the World

Human-Caused Extinction: A Call to Action

The Winding Roads of Sterile-20s: The Need for Personalized Treatment in Untangling the Inextricable Web of Cancer

  • Ponomarenko, E. A., Poverennaya, E. V., Ilgisonis, E. V., Pyatnitskiy, M. A., Kopylov, A. T., Zgoda, V. G., . . . Archakov, A. I. (2016). The Size of the Human Proteome: The Width and Depth. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2016, 1-6.

  • Duong-Ly, K. C., & Peterson, J. R. (2013). The Human Kinome and Kinase Inhibition. Current Protocols in Pharmacology.

  • Dan, I., Watanabe, N. M., & Kusumi, A. (2001). The Ste20 group kinases as regulators of MAP kinase cascades. Trends in Cell Biology, 11(5), 220-230.

  • Moore, T. M., Garg, R., Johnson, C., Coptcoat, M. J., Ridley, A. J., & Morris, J. D. (2000). PSK, a Novel STE20-like Kinase Derived from Prostatic Carcinoma That Activates the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Organization. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275(6), 4311-4322.

  • Yasuda, S., Tanaka, H., Sugiura, H., Okamura, K., Sakaguchi, T., Tran, U., . . . Yamagata, K. (2007). Activity-Induced Protocadherin Arcadlin Regulates Dendritic Spine Number by Triggering N-Cadherin Endocytosis via TAO2β and p38 MAP Kinases. Neuron, 56(3), 456-471.

  • Shrestha, R. L., Tamura, N., Fries, A., Levin, N., Clark, J., & Draviam, V. M. (2014). TAO1 kinase maintains chromosomal stability by facilitating proper congression of chromosomes. Open Biology, 4(6), 130108-130108.

  • Mcneill, H., & Badouel, C. (2011). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for The sterile 20-like kinase Tao-1 controls tissue growth by regulating the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway. F1000 - Post-publication Peer Review of the Biomedical Literature.

  • Oh, H. J., Kim, M. J., Song, S. J., Kim, T., Lee, D., Kwon, S., . . . Lim, D. (2010). MST1 Limits the Kinase Activity of Aurora B to Promote Stable Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment. Current Biology, 20(5), 416-422.

  • Tavares, I. A., Touma, D., Lynham, S., Troakes, C., Schober, M., Causevic, M., . . . Morris, J. D. (2013). Prostate-derived Sterile 20-like Kinases (PSKs/TAOKs) Phosphorylate Tau Protein and Are Activated in Tangle-bearing Neurons in Alzheimer Disease. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(21), 15418-15429.

Existing Between Dreams and Reality: The Science Behind Narcolepsy and Cataplexy

Digital Dentistry: The Rise of CAD/CAM

  • Miyazaki, T. et. al (2009). A review of dental CAD/CAM: current status and future perspectives from 20 years of experience. Dental Materials Journal: 28(1), 44-56.

* Rekow, E.D. (2006). Dental CAD/CAM systems: a 2-year success story. J. Am. Dent. Assoc.: 137, Suppl:5S-6S.

Gene Editing: Combating Malaria with CRISPR/Cas9

## The Power of Words: The Ramifications of Stigmatizing Language in Medical Records

Scientific Colonialism and Biopiracy: Moving Beyond Patents and Intellectual Property

Alexa, Play “Despacito”!: Privacy in our Virtually Augmented World

The Liquid to Life: The potential behind the presence of water in our Solar System

  • Choi, Charles Q. “Ancient Oceans on Mars May Have Been Older and Shallower Than Thought.”,, 19 Mar. 2018,

  • “Complex Organics Bubble up from Ocean-World Enceladus – Solar System Exploration: NASA Science.” NASA, NASA, 27 June 2018,

  • Greicius, Tony. “The Solar System and Beyond Is Awash in Water.” NASA, NASA, 7 Apr. 2015,

  • Horner, Jonti. “Water, Water, Everywhere in Our Solar System but What Does That Mean for Life?” The Conversation, The Conversation, 19 Sept. 2018,

  • Kerr, Richard A. “Cassini Plumbs the Depths of the Enceladus Sea.” Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 4 Apr. 2014,

  • NASA. “Cassini at Enceladus: A Decade-Plus of Discovery – Solar System Exploration: NASA Science.” NASA, NASA, 25 Sept. 2018,

  • NASA. “Cassini Sees Heat Below the Icy Surface of Enceladus – Solar System Exploration: NASA Science.” NASA, NASA, 31 Aug. 2018,

  • NASA. “Ocean Worlds.” NASA, NASA,

  • Oskin, Becky. “What Is Plate Tectonics?” LiveScience, Purch, 19 Dec. 2017,

  • Philips, Dr. Tony. “What Happened to Mars? A Planetary Mystery.” NASA, NASA, 12 Nov. 2013,

  • Redd, Nola Taylor. “What Is Solar Wind?”,, 19 May 2018,

  • Staff. “Mars Surface Made of Shifting Plates Like Earth, Study Suggests.”,, 14 Aug. 2012,

  • Wall, Mike. “This May Be the Best Evidence Yet of a Water Plume on Jupiter's Moon Europa.”,, 14 May 2018,

  • Wenz, John. “23 Places We've Found Water in Our Solar System.” Popular Mechanics, Popular Mechanics, 16 Mar. 2015,

Issue 17

Issue 17

Genetics of Esophageal Cancer: Exploring a Booming Sector of Cancer Research

  • Sugase, T. et. al (2017). Suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 gene therapy induces potent antitumor effect in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft mice. Int. J. Cancer: 140, 2608-2621.
  • Li, S. et. al (2016). Modulation of E-cadherin expression promotes migration ability of esophageal cancer cells. Sci. Rep: 6, 21713.
  • TCGA Research Network (2017). Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma. Nature: 541, 169-175.
  • Weaver, J. et. al (2014). Ordering of mutations in preinvasive disease stages of esophageal carcinogenesis. Nature Genetics: 46, 837-843.
  • National Institutes of Health (2018). Gene Therapy. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Break Out The Soap: The Filthiest Objects You Touch Everyday

  • Heid, Markham. “The 5 Dirtiest Things You Touch Every Day.” Time, Time, 4 Jan. 2017,
  • “Here's How Often You Should Replace Your Kitchen Sponge.”,
  • News, CBS. “Yuck! 7 Everyday Objects Ranked for Germiness.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 25 Oct. 2011,
  • Pegg, David. “The 25 Dirtiest Things You Touch Every Day.” List25, List25, 19 Apr. 2014,
  • Roufos, Anna. “Germ and Bacteria Hot-Spots: 12 Things You Should Know.” Fitness Magazine, Fitness Magazine, 27 Feb. 2008,
  • “Study Finds Vending Machine Buttons Among Bacteria Contaminated Surfaces In Office Break Rooms.” VendingMarketWatch,
  • “The 15 Dirtiest Thing You Touch Every Day.” WebMD, WebMD,

You Can't Always Trust Your Gut

  • Choi JG, Kim N, Ju IG, et al. Oral administration of Proteus mirabilis damages dopaminergic neurons and motor functions in mice. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1).
  • Cersosimo, M. G. et al. Gastrointestinal manifestations in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and occurrence before motor symptoms. J Neurol 260, 1332–1338,
  • Holmqvist, S. et al. Direct evidence of Parkinson pathology spread from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain in rats. Acta Neuropathol 128, 805–820, (2014).
  • Pellegrini C, et al. Alteration of colonic excitatory tachykininergic motility and enteric inflammation following dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:146. doi:
  • Lotharius J, Brundin P. Pathogenesis of parkinsons disease:dopamine, vesicles and α-synuclein. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2002;3(12):932-942. doi:10.1038/nrn983.
  • Schperjans F, Aho V, Pereira A, Gut microbiota are related to Parkinson's disease and clinical phenotype. Movement Disorders. 2015;30(3):350-358. doi:10.1002/mds.26069.

Impostor!: The Basics of Impostor Syndrome and How to Handle It

  • Clance, Pauline Rose, and Suzanne Ament Imes. “The Imposter Phenomenon in High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeutic Intervention.” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, vol. 15, no. 3, 1978, pp. 241–247., doi:10.1037/h0086006.
  • Cokley, Kevin, et al. “An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students.” Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, vol. 41, no. 2, 2013, pp. 82–95., doi:10.1002/j.2161-1912.2013.00029.x.
  • LaursenFeb, Lucas, et al. “No, You're Not an Impostor.” Science | AAAS, Science, 9 Dec. 2017,
  • Richards, Carl. “Learning to Deal With the Impostor Syndrome.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 26 Oct. 2015,
  • Stahl, Ashley. “Feel Like A Fraud? Here's How To Overcome Impostor Syndrome.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 10 Dec. 2017,
  • Weir, Kirsten. “Feel Like a Fraud?” American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association,

Treating ADHD While Preserving Creativity

  • Boot, Nathalie, Barbara Nevicka, and Matthijs Baas. 2017. "Creativity in ADHD: Goal-Directed Motivation and Domain Specificity." J Atten Disord: 1087054717727352. doi:10.1177/1087054717727352.
  • Gvirts, Hila Z., Naama Mayseless, Aviv Segev, D. Y. Lewis, Kfir Feffer, Yael Barnea, Yuval Bloch, and Simon Shamay-Tsoory. 2017. "Novelty-Seeking Trait Predicts the Effect of Methylphenidate on Creativity." J Psychopharmacol 31 (5): 599-605. doi:10.1177/0269881116667703.
  • Healey, Dione and Julia J. Rucklidge. 2006. "An Investigation into the Relationship among ADHD Symptomatology, Creativity, and Neuropsychological Functioning in Children." Child Neuropsychology 12 (6): 421-438. doi:10.1080/09297040600806086.

Science Policy in the Trump Administration: How the Trump Administration is Altering the Federal Science Policy Infrastructure

  • Kaplan, Sarah. “David Gelernter, Fiercely Anti-Intellectual Computer Scientist, Is Being Eyed for Trump's Science Adviser.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 18 Jan. 2017,
  • Mervis, Jeffrey. “Congress Gives Science a Record Funding Boost.” Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 30 Mar. 2018,
  • “A Running List of How Trump Is Changing the Environment.” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 6 Apr. 2018,
  • Waldman, Scott. “Trump's Science Advisor, Age 31, Has a Political Science Degree.” Scientific American, 14 Feb. 2018,
  • Wall, Mike. “New NASA Chief Jim Bridenstine Faces 'Uphill Climb' After Contentious Confirmation.”,, 20 Apr. 2018,

Second Last Chance: On the Ethics of Radical Conservation

  • McKie, Robin. “How IVF and Stem Cell Science Could Save the Northern White Rhino from Extinction.” The Observer, Guardian News and Media, 25 Mar. 2018, ivf-science.
  • “After Last Male's Death, Is the Northern White Rhino Doomed?” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 20 Mar. 2018, extinction-spd/.
  • “White Rhino.” WWF, World Wildlife Fund,
  • “In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): Side Effects and Risks.” American Pregnancy Association, 28 July 2017,
  • Pappas, Stephanie. “Should the White Rhino Be Saved?” Live Science, Live Science, 9 Mar. 2018,

RNA Interference for Therapeutic Treatment of Breast Cancer: How to Tackle the Issue of Multidrug Resistance

  • Chen, Y., Stamatoyannopoulos, G., and Song, C. Down-regulation of CXCR4 by inducible small interfering RNA inhibits breast cancer cell invasion in vitro. Cancer research 63, 4801-4804 (2003).
  • Ee, P. R., He, X., Ross, D. D., & Beck, W. T. Modulation of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) gene expression using RNA interference. Molecular cancer therapeutics 3, 1577-1584 (2004).
  • Fire, A. et al. Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in
  • Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 391, 806-811 (1998).
  • Hannon, G. RNA interference, Nature 418, 244-251 (2002).
  • Hannon, G., Rossi, J., Unlocking the potential of the human genome with RNA interference,
  • Nature 431, 371-387 (2004).
  • Huang, Z. Bcl-2 family proteins as targets for anticancer drug design. Oncogene 19, 6627-6631 (2000).
  • Igney, F.H., Krammer, P.H. Death and anti-death: tumour resistance to apoptosis. National
  • Review of Cancer 2, 277-288 (2002).
  • Klug, W., Cummings, M., Spencer, C., Palladino, M., Killian, D., Concepts of Genetics, Pearson Education, Inc, 2009.
  • LaCasse, E. C., Baird, S., Korneluk, R. G., and MacKenzie, A. E. The inhibitors of apoptosis
  • (IAPs) and their emerging role in cancer. Oncogene 17, 3247-3259 (1998).
  • Liang, Z., Yoon, Y., Votaw, J., Goodman, M., Williams, L., and Shim, H. Silencing of CXCR4 blocks breast cancer metastasis. Cancer research 65, 967-971 (2005).
  • Lima, R. T., Martins, L. M., Guimaraes, J. E., Sambade, C., and Vasconcelos, M. H. Specific downregulation of bcl-2 and xIAP by RNAi enhances the effects of chemotherapeutic agents in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cancer gene therapy 11, 309-316 (2004).
  • Muller, A., Homey, B., and Soto, H. et al. Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis. Nature 410, 50-56 (2001).
  • Voorhoeve, P. Mathijs, and Agami, R. Knockdown stands up. Trends in biotechnology 21, 2-4(2003).

The Truth On Serotonin: Misconceptions and the Reality About the Neurotransmitter and Its Function

  • Anacker, C., et al. “P.1.036 Antidepressants Modulate Human Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Activating the Glucocorticoid Receptor.” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 21, 2011, doi:10.1016/s0924-977x(11)70035-9.
  • Brazier, Yvette. “Understanding the Unhappy Side of Serotonin.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 28 Aug. 2016,
  • “How Do Antidepressants Trigger Fear and Anxiety?” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 24 Aug. 2016,
  • Keene, Matthew S. “Confusion and Complaints: The True Cost of Noncompliance in Antidepressant Therapy.” Https://,
  • Kodish, Ian, et al. “Pharmacotherapy for Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents.” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 58, no. 1, 2011, pp. 55–72., doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2010.10.002.
  • Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A. “Serotonin Engages an Anxiety and Fear-Promoting Circuit in the Extended Amygdala.” Nature, vol. 537, 1 Sept. 2016, pp. 97–101., doi:10.1038/nature19318.
  • Park, Alice. “The Brain: What The Mouse Brain Tells Us.” Time, Time Inc., 19 Jan. 2007,,9171,1580427,00.html.
  • “Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs).” NHS Choices, NHS,
  • Williams, Alex. “Prozac Nation Is Now the United States of Xanax.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 10 June 2017,

Exoplanets: A Home Away From Earth: Three Potential Destinations for the Human Race Once Life On Earth Is No Longer An Option

The Anthropocene: How Modern Geologists are Creating a Paradigm Shift in Our Concept of Time

  • Davies, Jeremy. The Birth of the Anthropocene. University of California Press, 2018.
  • Grusin, Richard A. Anthropocene Feminism. University of Minnesota Press, 2017.
  • Schniderman, Jill S. “The Anthropocene Controversy.” Anthropocene Feminism.

Man's Best Friend: The Evolution of Technology is a Double-Edged Sword

  • Pobiner, Briana. "The First Butchers." Sapiens, 23 Feb. 2016.
  • Khanna, Parag, and Ayesha Khanna. "The Evolution of Technology." bigthink.
  • Turkle, Sherry. "The Evolution of Technology." AAAI Technical Report Series, July 2006, pp. 1-10.

The Designer Plant Debate: Why CRISPR Crops May Be in Your Crisper Drawers Sooner Than You Think

  • “What Are Genome Editing and CRISPR-Cas9? - Genetics Home Reference.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Aug. 2017,
  • Brown, Kristen V. “Why CRISPR-Edited Food May Be in Supermarkets Sooner Than You Think.” Gizmodo,, 16 Jan. 2018,
  • “Secretary Perdue Issues USDA Statement on Plant Breeding Innovation.” USDA, 28 Mar. 2018,

Fighting the Heat: Geoengineering Strategies and Potential Global Effects

  • Biello, David. “What Is Geoengineering and Why Is It Considered a Climate Change Solution?” Scientific American, 6 Apr. 2010,
  • Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index. NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies.
  • Latham, J., et al. “Global Temperature Stabilization via Controlled Albedo Enhancement of Low-Level Maritime Clouds.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 366, no. 1882, 2008, pp. 3969–3987., doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0137.
  • Stockton, Nick. “Climate Change Is Here. It's Time to Talk About Geoengineering.” Wired, Conde Nast, 1 Feb. 2018,
  • Temple, James, and James Temple. “As Climate Dangers Grow, It Might Be Time to Begin Limited Geoengineering Experiments.” MIT Technology Review, MIT Technology Review, 21 Apr. 2017,
  • “What Is Geoengineering?” Oxford Geoengineering Programme // What Is Geoengineering?,

Issue 16

Issue 16

Jack of Some Trades: How Trade-offs Allow Organisms to Succeed Where it Counts

  • Hoffman, A.J. and Alliende, M.C. “Interactions in the Patterns of Vegetative Growth and Reproduction in Woody Dioecious Plants.” Oecologia, vol. 61, no. 1, 1984, pp. 109-114.

The Curious Case of Dictyostelium discoideum: How Slug Farming Bacteria Could Teach Us About Epigenetics

  • Aanen, D. et al. The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 99 (2011): 14887-14892.
  • Boomsma, Jacobus J. “Farming writ small.” Nature. 469. (2011): 308-9. Print.
  • Brock, Debra A., Tracy E. Douglas, David C. Queller, and Joan E. Strassmann. "Primitive Agriculture in a Social Amoeba." Nature. 469.7330 (2011): 393-96.
  • Brock, Debra, et al. “Social amoeba farmers carry defensive symbionts to protect and privatize their crops.” Nature Communications. 4.2385 (2013): 1-7.
  • Crespi, B.J. The evolution of social behavior in microorganisms. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16 (2001): 178-183.
  • Douglas, A. E. Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43. (1998): 17-37.
  • DiSlavo, Sussane, et al. “Burkholderia bacteria infectiously induce the protofarming symbiosis of Dictyostelium amoebae and food bacteria.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. PNAS. (2015): E5029-E5037.
  • Farrell, B. et al. The evolution of agriculture in beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae). Evolution. 55 (2001): 2011-2027.
  • Frey, N. Investigating the induction of farming behavior by Burkholderia fungorum in Dictyostelium discoideum. Senior Research Thesis. Denison University. Granville, OH. (2017).
  • Kessin, Richard. Dictyostelium: evolution, cell biology, and the development of multicellularity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, (2001). Print.
  • Mueller, U.G., Schultz, T., Currie, C., Adams, R. & Malloch, D. The origin of the ant-fungus mutualism. Q. Rev. Biol. 76. (2001): 169-197.
  • Smith, Bruce D. (ed.) The Emergency of Agriculture (Scientific American Library, Freeman, 1995).

.01% : The Germs that Hand Sanitizers Don’t Kill

  • “C. difficile infection.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 18 June 2016,
  • “Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13 July 2017,
  • Jabbar, U, et al. “Effectiveness of alcohol-Based hand rubs for removal of Clostridium difficile spores from hands.” Infection control and hospital epidemiology., U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2010,
  • Michaels, Barry. “Hand Washing vs. Hand Sanitizer in the Fight Against Norovirus.” Hand Hygiene, Infection Prevention and Food Safety Blog,
  • “Norovirus infection.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 17 Nov. 2017,
  • “Parasites - Cryptosporidium (Also known as "Crypto").” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 12 Jan. 2017,
  • Vogel, Lauren. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, Canadian Medical Association, 6 Sept. 2011,


Debating the Use of Public Lands: Conservation or Mining for the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness

La Llorona: Cultural DNA, Representation Through Diaspora, and the Ecology of Folklore: Exploring the Network of a Folktale Through an Ecological Lens

  • Cantú, Norma Elia. “La Llorona Considers the State of Tortillas.” Feminist Studies. vol. 34.1, 2008, pp. 129-30. ProQuest. Web.
  • Horcasitas, F. and D. Buttersworth. “La Llorona.” Tlalocan: Revista de Fuentes para el Conocimiento de las Culturas Indigenas de Mexico, vol. 4, no. 3, 1963, pp. 204-224. Web.
  • Kearney, Michael. “La Llorona as a Social Symbol.” Western Folklore, vol. 28, no. 3, 1969, pp. 199-206. Web.
  • Palacios, Monica. “La Llorona: The Other Side.” Anthology: Chicana Lesbians: The Girls Our Mothers Warned Us About. Ed. Carla Trujillo. 1991, pp. 1-3, Web.
  • Perez, Domino R. There was a Woman: La Llorona from Folklore to Popular Culture. Ed. Domino R. Perez. University of Texas Press, Austin, 2008. pp. Ix-xv. Web.
  • Simerka, Barbara. “Women Hollering: Contemporary Chicana Reinscriptions of La Llorona Mythography.” Confluencia. Greeley: U Northern Colorado, 2000. pp. 49-58. Web.
  • Trujillo, Patricia Marina. “Becoming La Llorona.” Chicana/Latina Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, 2006, pp. 96-104. Web.

First Lab Grown Human Eggs: A Beacon of Hope for Infertility

Talking to Climate Deniers: A Road Map to Changing Minds

  • Cook et al. 2013. “Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature.” Environmental Research Letters. 8: 2
  • Feinberg, M., Willer, R. 2011. “Apocalypse Soon? Dire Messages Reduce Belief in Global Warming by Contradicting Just-World Beliefs.” Psychological Science. 22:1 (34-38)
  • "Global Climate Change: Evidence." NASA Global Climate Change and Global Warming: Vital Signs of the Planet. Jet Propulsion Laboratory / National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 15 June 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2015. .
  • Lezak, S.B., Thibodeau, P.H. 2016. “Systems thinking and environmental concern.” Journal of Environmental Psychology. 46: (143-153).
  • McCright, A.M., Dunlap, R.E. 2012. “Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States.” Global Environmental Change. 21:4 (1163-1172)
  • Storey, M., Duncan, R.A. 2007. “Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the opening of the Northeast Atlantic.” Science. 316: 587-9
  • Van Rensburg, W., Head, B.W. 2017. “Climate Change Scepticism: Reconsidering How to Respond to Core Criticisms of Climate Science and Policy.” Sage

Beyond Brute Force Computing: Google’s AlphaZero and the Consequences of Fast Thought

  • Silver, D., Hubert, T., Schrittwieser, J., Antonoglou, I., Lai, M., Guez, A., . . . Hassabis, D. (2017). Mastering Chess and Shogi by Self-Play with a General Reinforcement Learning Algorithm. Cornel University Library, 1-19. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  • Tom Standage (2002-04-01). The Turk: The Life and Times of the Famous 19th Century Chess-Playing Machine. Walker.

Behind the Opioid Crisis: A Primer on Opioid Function, Overdose, and Reversal

  • “Responding to Opioid Overdose: Rescue Breathing and Chest Compressions.”, Harm Reduction Coalition.
  • Richardson, Diana C. New York State Assembly. Vote in New York State Assembly on Bill A10727, 17 June 2016, Albany, New York.

The Death Of The Luminiferous Aether: How Science Changes

  • Hendricks, Vincent F., et al. Interactions Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy, 1860-1930. Springer, 2006.
  • The Scientist. (2018). Michelson-Morley: The Great Failure. [online] Available at:
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  • (2018). [online] Available at:
  • Stokes, G. (1848). XLVII. On the constitution of the luminiferous æther. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 32(216), pp.343-349.
  • Swenson, Loyd S. “The Michelson-Morley-Miller Experiments before and after 1905.” Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol. 1, no. 1, 1970, pp. 56–78., doi:10.1177/002182867000100108.
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Boredom on the Brain: Could Lab Animal Enrichment Improve Biomedical Research?

  • Galanes, Katie C. “Brief Summary of Animal Testing Laws.” Michigan State University College of Law, 2010.
  • Grimm, David. “The Happiness Project.” Science, vol. 359, no. 6376, 9 Feb. 2018, pp. 624–627., doi:10.1126/science.359.6376.624.
  • Hajar, Rachel. “Animal Testing and Medicine.” Heart Views, vol. 12, no. 1, 2011, p. 42., doi:10.4103/1995-705x.81548.
  • Pokryfke, Kiirsa, and Rob Lebowsky. Animal Enrichment Database, University of Michigan.
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Issue 15

Issue 15

Think One Person Can Change the World?: Plants Already Have

  • Clock metaphor taken from a lesson plan written by Dr. Larry MacPhee, a biology professor at NAU ([][0])
  • Labandeira, Conrad. 2007. “The Origin of Herbivory on Land: Initial Patterns of Plant Tissue Consumption by Arthropods.” Insect Science 14: 259-275.
  • Davies, N.S., Gibling, M.R. 2013. “The sedimentary record of Carboniferous rivers: Continuing influence of land plant evolution on alluvial processes and Palaeozoic ecosystems.” Earth Science review 120:40-79.
  • Hu, S., Dilcher, D.L., Jarzen, D.M., Taylor, D.W. 2007. “Early Steps of Angiosperm-Pollinator Co-Evolution.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 240-245.

And We Don't Have Liftoff: The Origin of Flightless Birds

  • Baker, Allan J., et al. “Genomic Support for a Moa–Tinamou Clade and Adaptive Morphological Convergence in Flightless Ratites.” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 31, no. 7, 2014, pp. 1686–1696., doi:10.1093/molbev/msu153.
  • Cracraft, Joel. “Phylogeny And Evolution Of The Ratite Birds.” Ibis, vol. 116, no. 4, 2008, pp. 494–521., doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1974.tb07648.x.
  • The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Flightless Bird.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 31 Jan. 2017,
  • Fromme, Alison. “Why Fly? Flightless Bird Mystery Solved, Say Evolutionary Scientists.” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 13 May 2014,
  • Mayntz, Melissa. “What Birds Don't Fly? Get the Complete Flightless Bird List!” The Spruce, 24 Nov. 2017,
  • Sundstrom, Bob. “Flightless Birds: Evolving the Inability to Fly.” Flightless Birds: Evolving the Inability to Fly,
  • Woollaston, Victoria. “Mystery of Flightless Birds Solved: Ground-Dwelling Birds Evolved SEPARATELY from Each Other on Different Continents.” Daily Mail Online, Associated Newspapers, 14 May 2014,
  • Zimmer, Carl. “A Theory on How Flightless Birds Spread Across the World: They Flew There.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 22 May 2014,

Nature vs Nurture: The Impact of Genes and Environment on Behavior

  • "Epigenomics." National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 1 Apr. 2016. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • Fierro, Pamela Prindle. "Why Are Identical Twins Different?" Verywell. Ed. Joel Forman. 17 Oct. 2017. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • "Insights from Identical Twins." Genetic Science Learning Center. University of Utah. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • Lewis, Tanya. "Twins Separated at Birth Reveal Staggering Influence of Genetics." Live Sience. Purch, 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • Maldarelli, Claire. "Here's Why Twin Studies Are So Important to Science and NASA." Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation, 01 Mar. 2016. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • McLeod, Saul. "Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology." Simply Psychology. 2015. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • Rettew, David. "Nature Versus Nurture: Where We Are in 2017." Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, 06 Oct. 2017. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • Serena, Katie. "Twins Separated at Birth Reunited to Find They’d Led the Same Life." All That Is Interesting. 26 Sept. 2017. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • Sincero, Sarah Mae. "Nature and Nurture Debate." Explorable. 16 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • Than, Ker. "A Brief History of Twin Studies." Smithsonian Institution, 04 Mar. 2016. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .
  • "Why Twin Studies?" Michigan State University Twin Registry. Web. 1 Nov. 2017. .

Brain Boost: The Dangers of Stimulant Abuse in College Students

  • Lakhan, Shaheen E, and Annette Kirchgessner. “Prescription Stimulants in Individuals with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Misuse, Cognitive Impact, and Adverse Effects.” Brain and Behavior, Blackwell Publishing Inc, 23 July 2012.
  • Arnold, L. E. “Methylphenidate vs. Amphetamine: Comparative Review.” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 3, no. 4, 2000, pp. 200–211., doi:10.1177/108705470000300403.
  • Loria, Kevin. “21 Startling Facts That Everyone Should Know About Adderall.” Business Insider, 9 May 2014,
  • University of Rhode Island. “College students face risks, unknown benefits from misuse of prescription stimulants.” ScienceDaily, 1 October 2013,
  • Stoddart, Tim. “The Adderall Problem - Stimulant Abuse With College Students.” SoberNation, 8 September 2011,
  • Morris, Susan York. “Dangers of Mixing Adderall and Alcohol.” Healthline, Healthline Media, 29 July 2016,

Bog Bodies: Tracing Human Narratives Through Interdisciplinary Methodology

  • Evers, Jeannie. Editor. “Bog.” National Geographic, 12 September 2012, Accessed 16 November 2017.
  • Hurd, Barbara. Stirring the Mud: On Swamps, Bogs, and Human Imagination. University of Georgia Press, 2008.
  • Johnson, Charles W. Bogs of the Northeast. University Press of New England, 1985.
  • Levine, Joshua. “Europe’s Famed Bog Bodies Are Starting to Reveal Their Secrets,” Smithsonian Magazine, May 2017, Accessed 16 November 2017.
  • Reinan, John. “A black hole, a giant wandering bog—Brainerd-area lake is full of surprises.” Star Tribune, 20 October 2017, Accessed 20 October 2017.
  • Sanders, Karin. Bodies in the Bog. The University of Chicago Press, 2009. “Wetlands Classification and Types.” EPA, Accessed 7 November 2017.

Germ Theory: How We Became Acquainted with Diseases

  • Brewing, Pasteur. “Louis Pasteur Biography and Timeline.” Pasteur Brewing, 6 July 2017,
  • “Chicken Cholera.”, Animal Research,
  • “Cholera.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, Aug. 2017,
  • CN Trueman. “Louis Pasteur.” History Learning Site, 17 Mar. 2015,
  • Lynn Cinnamon. “Secrets of the Plague Doctor Bird Masks |.” Secrets of the Plague Doctor Bird Masks Comments, 1 Oct. 2015,
  • Manolopoulou, Artemis. “The Industrial Revolution and the Changing Face of Britain.” British Museum,
  • Rosenhek, Jackie •. “Doctor's Review: Medicine on the Move.” Doctor's Review , Oct. 2011,
  • “Science Museum. Brought to Life: Exploring the History of Medicine.” Hidden Extras: Cholera Comes to Victorian London, Sciencemuseum,
  • “Time Line.”, Nobel Prize,

Helping People Breathe Easier: Cystic Fibrosis and Gene Manipulation

  • Abuse, National Institute on Drug. “How many people suffer adverse health consequences from misuse of prescription drugs?”NIDA,
  • Christopher Coble, Esq. “Is It Illegal to Share or Give Away Prescription Drugs?” FindLaw Blotter,

If cartilage wears away hydrogels can save the day: A look into the future of 3D printing in the biomedical industry

  • Cui, Xiaofeng, et al. “Thermal Inkjet Printing in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation, vol. 6, no. 2, 2012, pp. 149–155.
  • International Cartilage Repair Society. “3D Printing.” Patient Education, 16 Apr. 2015,
  • Levato, Riccardo, et al. “Biofabrication of tissue constructs by 3D bioprinting of cell-Laden microcarriers.” Biofabrication, vol. 6, no. 3, 22 July 2014, pp. 20–35.
  • Li, Bingyan, et al. “ Past, present, and future of microcarrier-Based tissue engineering.” Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, vol. 3, no. 2, Apr. 2015, pp. 51–57.
  • Yang, Jingzhou, et al. “Cell-Laden hydrogels for osteochondral and cartilage tissue engineering." Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 57, 15 July 2017, pp. 1–25.

What’s Cooking?: Climate Change, Legislation, and Growth

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  • “A Historic Commitment to Protecting the Environment and Addressing the Impacts of Climate Change.” National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives and Records Administration,
  • Marlon, Jennifer, et al. “Yale Climate Opinion Maps - U.S. 2016.” Yale Program on Climate Change Communication, 2016,

Time for an Upgrade: The Shift to 3D Printed Casts

  • Caruso, Catherine. “Plaster casts get a long-Overdue makeover with 3-D printing.” MIT Technology Review, MIT Technology Review, 26 July 2016.
  • Desarrollo. “Swapping Plaster Casts for 3D Printing.” ScienceDaily.
  • Haensch, Anna. “3-D Casts So Cool That You'll Almost Want To Break A Bone.” NPR, NPR, 12 July 2013.
  • “Designing a Patient-Specific 3D-Printed Cast with the Lightweight Structures Module.” Materialise.
  • Limer, Eric. “It's Almost Worth Breaking Your Arm for this Crazy 3D-Printed Cast.” Gizmodo,, 29 June 2013.
  • Dunne, Carey. “Could This 3-D Printed Cast Really Heal Bones Faster?” Co.Design, Co.Design, 2 May 2017.
  • Evill, Jake. “CORTEX.” EVILL.

Lab-Grown Meat: Food Savior of the Future or an Elusive Ambition?

Oberlin’s Clear Center: Building Quantitative Skills Since 2012

  • Communications Staff. “Oberlin Selected for HHMI Inclusive Excellence Initiative.” Oberlin College and Conservatory, 7 June 2017,
  • “Newsletter Fall 2016.” Center for Learning, Education, and Research in the Sciences, 2016,
  • “The Center for Learning, Education, and Research in the Sciences | CLEAR Quantitative Skills Center | Oberlin College.” Oberlin College & Conservatory,